Visiting And History Of Perú Since The Early Cultures
Visiting Peru is mainly for the famous Inca civilization is merely the tip of Peru’s archaeological iceberg. The country’s first inhabitants were nomadic hunters and gatherers, living in caves and some wild hunting animals like deer and South American llamas, alpacas. vicuñas, huanacos, Andean rabbits, but the domestication of alpacas and llamas, began around 7000 BC and 4000 BC, and some potato was domesticated between 3000 BC, perú now has around 4000 varieties of potato.
From 1000 to 300 BC, the early Horizon or Chavin period seen at chavin de Huantar, which is the archaeological site near to Huaraz, saw widespread settled communities, plus the interchange of ideas, enhanced skills and culture inexplicably disappeared around 300BC. he next 500 years sow the rise and fall of the Salinar near Trujillo and the Paracas south of Lima, who produced some of the most exquisite textiles in the Americas.
Between AD 100 and AD 700, pottery, metalwork and textiles reached new heights of technological development and the Moche built their massive pyramids near Trujillo and Sipan near Chiclayo. it was also around this time that the Nazca sculpted their giant enigmatic lines in the southern desert, from about AD 600 to AD 1000 the first Andean expansionist empire emerged and influence of the Wari, from north of Ayacucho, can still be seen throughout most of Perú.
During the next four centuries, several regional states thrived including the Chimu, who built the city of Chan Chan near Trujillo the chachapoyas, who built the forested site of Kuélap, the Chancay, and the Ica Chincha culture. Several small and warlike highland groups lived near lake Titicaca and left impressive, circular funerary towers like those at Sillustani.
Inca Culture And Spanish Conquest Until Now
Prior to 1430 the Inca ruled only the valley of Cusco but victory over local expansionists the small Chankas empire in 1430 marked the beginning of a rapid takeover. he Inka conquered and incorporated most of the area from southern Colombia to central Chile and built scores of fabulous mountain top stone cities, including Machupicchu itself. However, for all its greatness, the Inka empire lasted for barely a century. Around 1525 a civil war broke out between followers of the Inca Huascar In Cusco, who was born of the royal family and the other Inca king from Quito Ecuador country nowadays, he was his half brother.
Meanwhile, by 1526 Francisco Pizarro had headed south from Panama and discovered rich coastal settlements of the Inca empire. After returning to Spain to court money and men for the conquest, he returned, landing in the Ecuadorian coast, and marching overland toward Perú and the capital city of the Incas, reaching to Cajamarca in November 1532. Here he captured the norther Inca leader, Atahualpa ransomed him for rooms filled with gold but then murdered him, anyway once he had cash in hand. taking advantage of the chaos following the civil war, Pizarro was able to enter in Cusco as conqueror by 1532 and took Inka people as slaves, anyway, the Spaniards conquered Incas for 300 hundred years, and finally, we got the independence in 1822, since the time now Perú we live okay, but according to the local archaeologist, they said in the Inca time the population was calculated around twelve million Inca people, but now in Perú we live 30 million and also Peru has 24 states and one capital, called Lima, founded by the Spanish, in case they could lose the war against the Incas, and escape to Spain.
The people who live in the states and capital, only speak Spanish and people who live in the little countrysides speak two languages, Quechua and Spanish, that means they are mixed-race class] also there are people living on top of andeas mountain at 5000 thousand m,a,s,l, being llamas and alpcas herders and they speak only Quechua language, meaning, they the direct Inca ancestor, the people who lived in Machupicchu, 600 hundred years ago, also besides that, we have tribes living in the low jungle and also at the Lake Titicaca, so that means, Perú is one of the historical place for humanity.
Perú is essentially a society split between the mainly white and mestiso middle and upper classesa and mostly poor Indian people, who are farmers and herders for animals, but now thanks to tourism they are doing very well, since most of the mixed-race clas and quechuas from the top of the mountains are being employed, as sherpas to Inca trail and any alternative Inca trails.
Over half of Peru’s 30 million inhabitants are concentrated in the narrow coastal desert, while the other half are mostly to be found in the highlands, these highlanders are Inca’s ancestors, mainly from language they speak Quechua, while this language has been spoken by the people who lived in Machupicchu 600 hundred years ago.
Anyway, the Peruvians are happy to see tourists, since you are one of the main income for us, most the Peruvians are involved in tourism, that is the way, nowadays whoever is working in tourism, needs to go to the universities for providing professional service.In contrast, more than 60% of Perú lies east of the Andes in the Amazon basin but only 6% of the population lives there.
About 45% of Peru’s population is indigenous and 37% meztiso, most indigenous are Quechuas Inca’s ancestors, also we have Aymaras tribe by Lake Titicaca, About 15%of the population is white and 3% are black or of Asian descent. There is a sizeable community of Japanese and Chinese Peruvians that immigrated at the turn of the century to set up trading enterprises. Alberto Fujimori president from 1990 to 2000 is from Japanese descent and the many chifas Chinese restaurants are a testimony to the widespread Chinese presence.
We offer good food and often give a free pisco sour. A decent list of cocktails includes, la Peruvian cuisine is renowned in the world, since the Perú food is becoming famous in the world, mainly having the native ingredients, quinua one of the magic grain rich in protein, also we have fresh trout from the famous Lake Titicaca and some traditional food prepared from the islanders, like delicious soup with natural ingredients, they grow at their farming fields.
Peru has the food prepared for you, according to the regions you go, if you are in Cusco, you will get like, quinoa soup with vegetables and also types of soups prepared traditionally with aromatic ingredients and also types of main course, like lomo saltado, aji de gallina, papa a la huanquina, cuy al horno, sengundo de banitas, estofado de pollo, bistek a la olla, pure de papa, segundo de quinua, and even more super traditional plates.
Tours And Hiking Places
Perú has a lot of places for the visitors, mainly the kinking places are located through Andes, being one of the famous the Inca trail, being famous, because arriving through the sun gate, which viewpoint to Machupicchu, being one of the new seventh wonders of the world, but nowadays doing Inca trail is regulated the number of people. The Peruvian government has introduced a string of reforms to the Inca trail since 2001 in an attempt to reduce the number of hikers and prevent further damage to the Inca ancient historical road. As a result, all Inca road hikers must now go with a licensed gude, so for having a license, they need to go to the university for 5 years and have a degree and also being paramedic. Groups should not exceed 16, with one guide per 8 hikers. Registered tour agencies also have to pay huge fees and trail prices have shot up in response, but is not the only Inca trail to hike in the Andes, we have plenty amazing hiking through the andes with connection to Machupicchu, with train and also hiking a side of the train lines for 3 hours to Aguas Calientes town then to Machupicchu, so according to explorers we have around 350 Inca trails for those who want to walk and connections with nature, these trail being called ( Lares trek, Ausanate trek, Huchuy Qosqo trek, Mantanay trek, Patacancha trek, Aurora ccocha trek, Cunoc trek, Machay trek, Gallorimoy trek, Urcullos trek, Patallacta trek, Pumamarka trek, Qenqo trek, Patabamba trek, Pisaq trek, Pumatales trek, Salkantay trek, Choquequirau trek and more). If you are looking for a nice hike, you should do it with an adult tour guide and plus paramedic, for saving you from the height altitude and pulmonary and cerebral edema, also types of stomach infection.
Why Lares Trek
This is one of the most beautiful place, to be connected with the nature and having many alternative roads for hiking, since if you prefer, moderate, gentle or something challenging, this place is the brown Andes, being high mountain, since is south pole, where we can see plenty llamas, alpacas, all over places you walk and also some big lagoons and some mountains topped with ice.
The most important way of hiking this place is because there are Inca communities, which means, these people are Inca ancestor, the people who lived in Machupicchu 600 hundred year ago, according to the Peruvian archaeologists, when the Spaniards arrived in 1532, they found the Inca empire, which was called Cusco, but not all the states, because the Inca empire had four states and then more than 30 provinces, so that means, the Incas who lived fur away from Capital Cusco had time to run away , like the farmers and servants run to the top of the Andes, arriving until five thousand meter above sea level, where they took their refuge and never being found by the Spaniards, since this is a super high altitude for any one coming from the north pole, and also the only animals can be here , is small animals like llamas and alpacas, and the way the Incas survived here, was just eating potatoes dehydrated, thanks to winter layer of frost, good to make the fresh potatoes frozen then dried out with the sun, while the sun during the winter falls very hard, that is the way for Incas the winter was very sacred, also for making jerky from any meat, with the super sun shining and plenty salt obtained from the sacred Valley of the Incas to dehydrate the meat, then being stored the jerky for eighty year and the dehydrated potatoes for two hundred years.
The way to cook this type of frozen and dehydrated potatoes is in a steamed way, then we can eat it, as daily food, even after many days, since these potatoes does not come rotten, because is already dehydrated and steamed, like being food already for a couple of weeks, this is the way how the Incas eating potatoes dehydrated survived without being conquered by the Spaniards, until the independents have giving thanks to nice general from Venezuela and Argentina, they fought against the Spaniard’s arm, defeating this army from Spain in 1820.
That is the way doing Lares trek for the days you wish, is visiting the places from the living culture, which means the Inca ancestor people, that is the way the language they speak is Quechua, while this language has been spoken in Machupicchu 600 hundred years ago. Also these Inca people still keeping the traditions and skills from their ancestors, like wearing clothes made from the Llama and Alpaca wool and sandals made from animal leathers and get married like their ancestors, without needing rings and the party of a wedding takes eight days, amazing.
Be amazed by these traditional people along the LARES TREK, live the Inca culture with them.
Why Ausangate trek
This is one of hiking connected with the nature, like camping surrounded by some hot spring and plenty llamas and alpacas, also some mountains topped with ice, mainly Ausangate is one of the most beautiful places with the snowcapped mountains, being the highest close to Cusco city, being the top of the mountains 6000 masl. Also plenty of lakes at the bottom of these mountains.
Also this place is famous for many reasons, the place after having plenty llamas and alpacas, also has vicuña, which one of the national animals of Peru, having the look like small deer and have the finest wool and fast runner, still they are in a wild way, being forbidden the hunting, now they are in the national parks, possible to see in this place, also here you see plenty, chichillas, which is the wild rabbit, thousands of this animals along the way, mainly having long furry tail and small ears, also they are called en Quechua language Viscacha, considered the guardian of the mountains for the Inca people who live around these sacred mountains, anyway this place is magic.
This magic place has Inca people, mainly called locals, but they are living at high altitude, at places made with stone walls and thatched roof being located these living places at 4600 masl, and the main language being Quechua, while this language has been spoken In the Incas time, while the Incas in Peru were like Roman empire, being the inhabitants 12 million people, so if these people speak Quechua, that means they Incas ancestor and according to the archaeologists, the people who speak Quechua they live through the Andes, they are around 8 million people, Just in Peru, so that means, when the Spaniard arrived in Peru in 1532, most of the Inca people from the farmers class and servant class, had time to ran away from Spaniards arriving at the top of the Andes, where is too cold and less oxygen, when the Spaniards noticed about this, they try catching up with them, but they have been affected by high altitude, gaining headaches and edema en the long, that is the way they stop following them and what happens with marquis families and nobles, according to the archeologists, they run to Vilcabamba, a place considered, like the last Inca refuge place, where they have been prospected by last Inca army, but the Spaniards noticed about it, and then they sent the Spanish priest Dominicans to the last Inca refuge palace in other to betray the Incas with the excuse, introducing the bible and one time the Dominicans priest, noticed the Incas nobles, decided to celebrated The Sun festival, drinking for 8 days the types of traditional beer they had, like Masato from root potatoes fermented and chicha from the fermented corn.
When the time arrived to celebrate the sun festival from Incas nobles, that is time the Spaniards arrived and wait the Incas getting drunk, and jump out from the forest and killed to all of them and capturing all the nobles Incas and their families, then they have been taking to Cusco, where in front of the Incas slaves at the main plaza of Cusco city they had been killed, since that time, the main plaza is called in Quechua language Yahuar pampa, which means in English the bloody plaza still this name exist in Cusco city as the evidence.
So that means, still in Peru they Inca people living, on the top of the mountains, at super called place, where they have enough places to farm, thousands llamas and alpacas , and being one of the main income, selling the alpaca wool, but they are not descendant from the monarchic families , they are descendants from farmers class and servant class, because the noble class and the monarchies class, has been killed by the Spaniards betrayed by the Dominican order, that is the way the Dominicans order, from making wining the Spaniards to the Incas they decided asking for the best place in Cusco of the Incas, that is the way they got the temple of the sun , still nowadays they live in this place, having their church and big convent, and this is the real history of Cusco, according to the local archaeologists. So that means when you hike these mountains still you can see Inca people, keeping the tradition from their ancestors, like being religious and mystical people.
Why Huchuy Qosqo trek
This place is Inca new finding, close to Cusco city, offering the best dirt roads for hiking, being the hiking for couple days and also day hiking trips, one of the hikes is 7 hours, which is 14 kilometers with the best outstanding views and also watching, mountains topped with snow, anyway, this place is nice short hike better than classical Inca trail.
This place has been found recently, being covered up in layer of loose soil, farmed by the local people from around, every time when they removed the soil, they have been finding some shaped loose stone, that is the way the farmers decided telling to the local authorities about it, then the national institute of the culture of Cusco city decided paying attention, placing archaeologists and workers to clean up the place and to find out, in which time the place has been made, by lucky using the carbon dating turned the place is Inca building, made in 1400 years, nowadays the carbon dating is used to know the time has been made many archeological sites, just with analyzing all the organic things, can be found, at the archeological sites, like humans bones and clay artifacts.
Who lived in this stone beautiful place, according to the Peruvian archaeologists, lived in this place Incas people from different classes, like noble, farmers, servants, also in the Incas time the people lived in groups, together, in stone castle, for better protection, since in that time happened battles against other cultures, while in the Incas time there were some small empires and plenty tribes, most of the fighting was for the land, food, that is the way, why living in groups, for better protection, but the only difference was the noble class lived in places made with the shaped stone and the farmers and servants in places made of clay bricks, while the servants were people conquered from tribes and small empires, having no slaves in the Incas time.
How the people disappeared from this Inca place, since this place never has been found by Spaniards, the way how disappear is according the evidence studied by the Peruvian archaeologists, they said as soon as this person heard about Spaniard arrived in Cusco Inca city, they had time to run away, nobles to Vilcabamba, which has been the last refuge for the noble class and the farmers and servants and their own children to the top of the Andes mountain, where still they live, keeping their ancestor skills and living much better than the people from the cities, now a days, being called Quechuas of Peru, that is the way when you hike some alternative hikes through the mountains, you are able to see those Quechuas people, while we have more than 300 hundred Inca trails, being some still in use.
The way we promote these alternatives hikes is because you enjoy more these roads than the classical Inca trail.